The first study, published in The British Journal of Nutrition in 2012 (doi: 10.1017/S0007114512005338), assessed the modulatory effect of coffee fruit extract on plasma levels of BDNF:
The present single dose study was performed to assess the effect of whole coffee fruit concentrate powder (WCFC), green coffee caffeine powder (N677), grape seed extract powder (N31) and green coffee bean extract powder (N625) on blood levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Randomly assorted groups of fasted subjects consumed a single, 100mg dose of each material. Plasma samples were collected at time zero(T0) and at 30 min intervals afterwards, up to 120min. A total of two control groups were included: subjects treated with silica dioxide (as placebo) or with no treatment. The collected data revealed that treatments with N31 and N677 increased levels of plasma BDNF by about 31% under these experimental conditions, whereas treatment with WCFC increased it by 143% (n10), compared with baseline. These results indicate that WCFC could be used for modulation of BDNF-dependent health conditions. However, larger clinical studies are needed to support this possibility.
The second study, published in The Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences in 2013, delves into the stimulatory effect of whole coffee fruit extract (NeuroFactor™) on plasma levels of total and exosomal BDNF in healthy subjects:
A pilot study by Reyes previously showed that ingestion of single dose of whole coffee fruit concentrate (WCFC) powder increased blood levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the first 60 minutes after ingestion. In the present report, we performed a single dose, placebo-controlled, within-subject study to confirm and further investigate this effect. Twenty healthy subjects with ages ranging from 25 to 35 participated in this study. All fasted and resting subjects received placebo on Day 1, WCFC on Day 2, and a cup of freshly brewed coffee on Day 3. Treatment with WCFC resulted in a statistically significant increase in plasma BDNF compared to placebo (p = 0.0073) or coffee (p = 0.0219) during first 60 minutes. In addition, e isolated exosomes from serum and found that they contained BDNF. Furthermore, oral WCFC consumption acutely increased BDNF levels in serum exosomes. In summary, all presented results justify further clinical investigation of WCFC as a tool to manage BDNF-dependent health conditions.
A third study, published in 2013 in The American Journal of Biomedical Sciences, looked at total ROS In Vivo after whole coffee fruit dosage:
Six healthy participants were given a single dose of 100 mg of Coffeeberry® whole coffee fruit extract containing high levels of antioxidants to verify an acute effect of the treatment on ROS serum level. Blood samples were collected at 0 min, 60 min, 120 min and 180 min for subsequent measurements of serum ROS level using dihydrorhodamine 6G (DHR6G) as a fluorescent probe. The nonfluorescent DHR6G, after being oxidized by ROS present in serum samples, became rhodamine 6G (R6G) and emitted fluorescence. By quantifying R6G specific fluorescence, we were able to measure the ROS concentration. DHR 6G is indiscriminate to various free radicals (FR) found in the human body, thus DHR 6G can be very useful in quantifying total ROS in vivo. Our data indicated that five participants responded to the intake of Coffeeberry® whole coffee fruit extract by significant decrease of ROS concentrations in vivo. Collected results are promising and indicating that DHR6G-based method could be reliable and efficacious to measure acute serum ROS changes in response to single dose treatment with antioxidant products. Therefore further clinical validation of this test is justified.
A fourth study, published in The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, quantified the antioxidant and chlorogenic acid profiles of Coffeeberry® Brand whole coffee fruit, and determined that levels are influenced by extraction procedures:
Commercial whole coffee fruit extracts and powder samples were analyzed for chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine and antioxidant activities. CGA and caffeine were characterized by LC-MSn and HPLC accordingly, and quantified by UV absorbance. ORAC, HORAC, NORAC, SORAC and SOAC (antioxidant capacities) were assessed. Three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, three dicaffeoylquinic acids, one p-coumaroylquinic acid, two caffeoylferuloylquinic acids and three putative chlorogeniclactones were quantified, along with a methyl ester of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (detected in one sample, the first such report in any coffee material). Multistep whole coffee fruit extracts displayed higher CGA content than single-step extracts, freeze-dried, or air-dried whole raw fruits. Caffeine in multistep extracts was lower than in the single-step extracts and powders. Antioxidant activity in whole coffee fruit extracts was up to 25-fold higher than in powders dependent upon the radical. Total antioxidant activity of samples displayed strong correlation to CGA content.